Industrialization in India at British India where Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkatta city was developed very fast with migration from other part of the country. Which resulted slum areas vastly increased in these cities. We know the biggest slum area in Mumbai of the Asia i.e. Dharavi where very big population living with risk and small houses. We have historically privileged planned cities in India like haddappa culture.
We are developing countries therefore the most population of the country has very less income capacity to buy their basic needs therefore most of the people migrate to their nearest city for their food and living. The burden of the major cities of the country increase due to this problem so town planning policy has to be effective for the future of the country. So here we can see the how Indian Government implement their town planning policy and their execution towards ground reality.
Unauthorized construction, basic infrastructure , corruption, income capacity are the major problems of the government policy for the town planning policy success. As we know the federal structure of the country where central government, state government and local authority is the executor of town planning policy where lack of expertise at local level create problem to implement the policy of town planning. Here we can see in details the what is town planning policy and what is the problems of town planning policy for India.
What is Town Planning Policy ? –
Town planning specially related to urban development, with city structure, environment, water, electricity, infrastructure, construction planning etc. which government planning for urban areas. In the Indian constitution seventh schedule concurrent list provides policy making authority to central government, state government and local authorities. Central government can able to implement town planning effectively but at local level there is lack of expertise therefore special expertise provided by the state government to guide local town planning. It provides all the services to their citizens living in the city by planning effectively.
As after Independence in India more than 70% people were depends on agriculture sector and major population lived in villages of India. But Industrialization and Urbanization of the cities in India migration from villages to cities increased drastically since last 50 years. Agriculture sector is not profitable as Industry sector as figure suggested because of that more people switch to Industrial sector through migration at cities. The problem rises from this issue and more people gathered in very less area of land which creates unauthorized construction in cities.
In this problem most targeted land was government land which is of Railway department, river bank land, and other public sector companies land were acquired by these migration. Secured houses, basic security facility like ambulance and fire brigade is not able to provide services to these types of area due to unplanned township and small roads. We can see that Delhi and Mumbai people also living on footpath which is very serious issues for Indian Government to see the problem and work on town planning policy.
History of Town Planning Policy –
As wee have know that European culture is most ancient, but mesopotamia, egyptian civilization and Indus valley civilization is more ancient than European culture. The Indus valley through Maurya dynasty rule is the glorious period specially Samrat Asoka dynasty of Indian town planning culture which was oldest and advanced in the world. We have seen the Indus valley town planning structure of water management and roads structure which was very advance compare to that time.
In British India more base of today’s infrastructure was developed by British government through Industrialization and railway structure and river bridges. More than 80% todays railway structure build by British government which was very effective and running today also. Urbanization was developed in British India where migration from villages in India happened in that time. So the burden of infrastructure in cities increase drastically after that which needed the special town planning policy in India came through British India government.
After Independence town planning policy grown very slowly but after globalization and India changed their economic policy towards liberal economy. Which changed the whole scenario of the infrastructure of Indian town planning policy. Various laws made for the development of town planning by central government and also the various states in India. We have most low income population in India which is mostly lives in cities towards their daily problem but they don’t have basic needs. Therefore government tried to fulfill their requirement through town planning policy.
Town Planning Legislation in India –
In Indian Legal system most of the legislation made by British India continued after Independence of India where town planning legislation has bigger role of these legislation. Currently we have seen the biggest transformation of legislation in India where old laws repealed and new laws introduced in various subject matters. Town planning legislation in India is the important laws which is need of the current development of India which is one of the largest economy of the world in future.
National Urban Policy Framework in India –
As per 2011 data 377 million people residing in urban area and up to 2031 this population of urban area reached to more than 500 million. The National Urban Policy framework in India is a urban development’s key feature of economical growth therefore town planning policy has to be crucial. Sustainable development is require to protect the environmental area of these urban area otherwise it will affect our future generation. Therefore government has made the National urban policy framework to implement the town planning policy towards right way in less time.
To curtail the burden of urban cities in India the infrastructure development is crucial part of town planning policy where accessibility towards suburb area of metro cities is important in framework. There are regional variation in the level of urbanization specially south west India comprises Maharashtra, Goa, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Gujrat shows higher level of urbanization. Earlier in British India Kolkatta is the important city for Britishers as a capital where around cities developed at that time but after Independence capital shifted to Delhi and development of around cities grown rapidly with population.
Now to sustainable development of all the areas of the country the government has made the another policy to develop the other part of the country which is remain undeveloped earlier. Infrastructure, job opportunities, education centers Industrialization are the key point of frame work of urban development where sub cities growth is crucial. International posture of thinking and think tank connectivity gives more help to boost the policy making to the Indian government.
Reforms in Urban Planning in India –
Reform in Urban Planning as per the Niti Ayog Report of 2021 India’s 31% population residing in urban cities and most of the population comes under 10 states of the country. After globalization the United Nation Organization’s role increased as a global policy which is policy of sustainable development without affecting the environment. India will achieve 5 trillion economy till 2024 where town planning importance is very crucial while development is concern. Therefore government has various plans through different policies such as Pradhan mantri Awas Yojana, Swatchh Bharat Abhiyan, smart cities policy and Hriday yojana etc.
Biggest challenges to the government towards town planning is corruption, dirty politics, uncontrollable migration towards cities from villages. Unemployment, equal development plan for every area of the country is required to stop the migration from the villages towards urban area. Redevelopment of slum areas of the cities and control over unauthorized construction is the biggest challenge to the government authority. Earlier in British India the infrastructure is very good as compare to todays development because of corruption and politics the quality development has to be needed.
Digitalization of the urban area of the country is the another planning of government where special committee will be formed for the regulation. There will be urban planning education system established to support the policy execution. The National council of town and country planning will be established in central level to control the town planning policy. As per the global policy of private sector participation in urban development plan will be increase in future.
Features of Town Planning Policy in India –
- Railway is the important transportation system in India which was more than 80% structure established by British India and national highway system of transportation is second most important system in India.
- Unauthorized construction, unemployment in other part of the country is the biggest reason of migration towards urban area of the country.
- Most economy is concentrated between major 10 states of the country therefore 75% urbanization of the country is developed in these states.
- Town planning legislation is made by central government, state government and local bodies of the country.
- United nation organization has given the guideline policy for the urban development policy which has to be implemented by the country i.e, sustainable development towards protecting the environment.
- vertical construction development policy is made for population burden increased by these cities.
- Maintaining law and order, maintaining environmental protection, straighten the education, health policy. construction regulation, infrastructure is the important goal of the town planning policy.
- Land acquisition act is also related to town planning which is crucial in time to time for planning of urban cities which is amended time to time.
- TDR and FSI facility is implemented for compensation to the affected land owner while acquisition of land and also the compensation award is greater than market price to promote town planning.
- There is town planning authority formed from central government, state government to local level body to regulate the policy for related area.
- Representation from various fields are there related to town planning subject is concern to execute the efficient town planning.
Critical Analysis of Town Planning Policy in India –
We have the most oldest civilization in the world who had a history of developed town planning technology in ancient India but corruption, politics, unequal development of the cities and rural area the migration became the biggest issue towards un-controllable burden over local authority. Unauthorized construction, uncontrollable automobile production increased the burden of infrastructure of the cities. Lack of Public transportation policy and promotion of private automobile the automobile burden on roads of the city is the biggest issue today.
Even though the United Nation Organization has given the guidelines for sustainable development plan to all the countries of the world but water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution is still the major problem of urban cities today. Most of the metro cities has air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution problem with economical growth but the purchase power of the majority people of these cities not able to fulfill their basic need of shelter in the cities.
Infrastructure of British India is still superiors than todays construction work as past experience tells the story so far. Railway infrastructure is still mostly developed by Britishers and we are not able to increased its efficiency and in spite of that we promoted the automobile sector which private sector is leader of it. Lack of good public transportation private vehicle increased without controlling their production in industry which affect the traffic problems in every cities and become the more and more wider roads in the cities to this vehicles. High cost house rate invites the unauthorized construction and slum area in the cities.
India is the second largest population country after China and un equal development of the cities in India invites uncontrollable migration problem in the major cities. If we compare the cities of Europe and America which is developed countries are far superiors town planning than India. Their plus point is population is very less compare to India specially in Europe but in America the major cities like New York, Los Angelis, California are still having burden of population due to migration all over the world. America is International wealthy nation so they can effort to spend heavy money for development compare to India.
The cities in India developed very rapidly but it affects on environment so cost of it we cannot affords to developed. We have to developed the other cities in India to release the burden of current major cities for that these un developed cities has to be developed by priority. The Indian government has taken the initiative through various programs like ‘smart cities” what is the result of this program we can see this in future but we hope that this affords solve the problem of country.
The central government has expert to implement the town planning effectively but on the local level we can see the lack of expertise in town planning knowledge and political appointment is happened mostly. So un organized cities developed and problems increased for the future generation. Town planning awareness is requires to spread in the people to understand the importance of execution of it. There is various institutes and organization to guide the authorities in local level most importantly.