Today we will try to know about Non Government Organization i.e. NGO in front of you. In this we will try to know what is NGO and what is its purpose. We will see what is the history of NGO and we will see how NGO was formed at the global level. It is said that there is one NGO per 400 Indians in India, yet we see major problems in India.
The major problems in India have changed a lot in the last 40 years, such as food, clothing and housing, these problems remained major, in which education, health and employment have been added to it in today’s date. About 30 lakh NGOs are registered in India, how much honesty they work on real problems is a matter of revision. We will also talk about the problems of making the information of NGOs available to the public.
The class for which this NGO works, they do not know at all what it is and how it works, and those who run the NGO mostly do not know what are the main problems of the society. On this, the question arises whether the money received from abroad for these NGOs is not becoming a means of earning more money than social work. To control foreign aid, the government has recently brought a new bill in the parliament in 2020. We will also write on this.
India’s Top 5 NGO / TOP 5 NGO in India –
1) Smile Foundation –
It is a Delhi based organization which was established in 2002 and today it is doing its work in 25 states. This organization mainly works for the education and health of poor children and works on other important social problems.
2) Nanhi Kali-
This organization was established in 1996 by Anand Mahindra and its main objective is to provide education, health and a good life to poor destitute girls of India.
3) Give India Foundation
The main objective of this organization has been to provide financial assistance to NGOs working in India. It was established in 1999 and this organization provides financial assistance to NGOs working in India by collecting money through foreign aid and through influential people of India.
This organization was established in 1999 and it is an NGO established in Delhi whose main objective is to help clothes in disaster and this organization today works in 23 states on important needs like education and health.
5) Helpage India –
This organization was established in 1978, whose main objective is to work in the society for the elderly people, in which health, providing a place to live, the survival of such adult people is also a social problem, on which this organization works.
What is NGO? / What is Non Government Organization –
Constitutionally in a democracy, the system which works for the benefit of the society, we call it government. NGO This is a non-governmental organization which works on the problems of the society which the government cannot reach, in which we can see the social issues. In which the problem of children’s education, the problem of any disease, problems related to health, this NGO works on many such topics.
- non profit organization
These organizations are run by the above three methods, in this many organizations are also run by the government and the purpose of the government is fulfilled. In the private sector, such organizations are run at the individual level or by the organization. Some people run such organizations for social work by investing their own money; others run such organizations by collecting donations from people or with foreign funds.
Mainly, in today’s era, we see more and more government machinery using such private organizations to fulfill their plans. Most of the NGOs in India are seen by political parties or political persons. The resolution was passed to promote it all over the world through the UN Charter of the United Nations. After this, such organizations work all over the world, especially in developing countries and in poor countries, we find these organizations working.
History of non-governmental organization / History of NGO –
By the way, the model of social organization which works like NGO is quite old, but in true sense it was promoted as NGO according to article 71 of United Nations Charter. No such precise definition of NGO has been given, but the organization which works in the social sector on humanity and other social problems without any profit, such organizations are called NGO.
Most of the NGO’s were used by political parties and trade unions in the last century. Mainly, we get to see the establishment of NGO more in developed countries, who had established it to work on important problems in developing and poor countries. Ever since after the Second World War all the countries of the world were made independent but all these countries were not able to run democracy, at that time these NGOs have played a very important role.
If we talk about India, we get to see these institutions from British India, which have worked for the safety of women and children in the field of education. These institutions have been run in India for serious diseases like leprosy. Such institutions are also used by the government to run its social schemes. Many political parties and the government have started doing social work by forming such NGOs.
How does NGO work? –
NGO is mainly registered under three laws in which
- Indian Trust Act 1882
- Societies Registration Act 1860
- Companies Act 2013
- In the field of education, NGO works mainly from British India, in which we know government aided educational institutions.
- Many NGOs are run in India for the purpose of protecting nature, which oppose government or private projects that harm nature.
- Regarding health, many NGOs are run in India, which provide low-cost hospitals for poor and low-income people.
- In Indian society, children and women are considered to be the weakest part of the society, many NGOs work for them.
- Political parties and governments establish such organizations to fulfill their social objectives.
- A minimum number of persons are required to form a trust and a minimum of seven members are required to form a society.
- According to Section 8, any company can establish its own NGO under the Companies Act, in which we see that Tata, Reliance, Infosys and many other companies establish these organizations through this medium.
- Big industrialists invest their own money to run an NGO, while under the Society Act, some organizations are run by the prestigious organizations or people of the society by taking money in the form of donations.
- Many big organizations of developed countries provide money to the NGOs of India for this.
- NGO These organizations work on religious, social and any specific social problem.
- Every year all these organizations have to audit their organization with the corresponding authority so that this information can be made available to the society.
Foreign Contribution Regulatory Bill 2020 –
- India’s intelligence agency has released a report, according to which some NGOs use foreign money to oppose India’s development.
- Under different rules by the government, the recognition of more than 4000 NGOs which do not follow the rules of the government has been canceled or their accounts have been frozen. Some major issues of this bill
Government officials cannot take foreign aid.
- A separate bank account will have to be opened for foreign aid, which will have to be opened in the banks prescribed by the corresponding authority.
- A lock has been imposed on the administrative expenses of the NGO, which
50 percent to 20 percent.
- Power to restrict foreign aid funds
- Must provide ID for registration
- The suspension period has been made 360 days instead of 180 days.
In order to overcome the loopholes in the law regulating NGOs, a law was brought in 2020 to control foreign aid, under which the main objective has been to determine the responsibility of NGOs and to further tighten the rules of the registration process. It has been seen that many NGOs are set up to do corruption and tax evasion, rules have been tightened to prevent this, and it has been determined that the main objective should be for the benefit of the society.
This law was regulated by the UPA government in 2010, after which foreign aid has increased significantly for NGOs, and before bringing the FCRA bill in 2020, the government has concluded that many NGOs, the purpose for which this foreign aid reaches It is not used for that purpose and is used for personal gain. That’s why the government has felt the need for strict rules on this, which is seen in this bill.
How to start NGO / How to Start NGO –
- define your purpose
- Set up a Board of Directors for the NGO
- Specify name for NGO
- Prepare MOA and AOA
- Raise funds for NGO
Documents for NGO Establishment –
- Signatures of at least three members are required on each page of MOA and AOA
- Documentary proof of registered office in which copy of light bill / sale deed or water bill
- Copy of address proof and identity card of each member
- NOC of owners on Rs 10 stamp paper
- Speaker’s affidavit on Rs.10 stamp paper
- List of all the members of the society with signature
- At least eight members should be from different states
Critical analysis of non-governmental organization / Critical Analysis of NGO –
- At the social level, the people who need NGO do not know what it is, but those who do not need it, they know very well how to take advantage of it.
- In India, this type of NGO is seen on every 400 men, but its effect is not seen at the ground level at all.
- According to the report of IB, some NGOs use foreign funds to increase the development work of the government, due to which one percent loss is seen in the development of the country.
- NGO objective is to solve different problems of the society but many NGOs are created only to earn money.
- Many NGOs are anti-social or organizations are created to harm the society, so that one purpose of showing and one real purpose is run by it.
- Many NGOs create such organizations to evade tax and to convert black money into white.
- Political parties and influential people have so much influence on the formation of NGO that it is not visible for what purpose it is being run.
- The government organization that administers the NGO does not do its work efficiently; such allegations are made, in which corruption has to be seen for auditing.
- For education, health and employment, no work of NGO is seen in the society.
- At the ground level, there is no information available about which NGO the people should go to on their problems.
- The purpose of NGO has not been fully achieved in India till date and we see it completely ineffective after the policy of privatization.
Features of non-governmental organization / Features of NGO –
- It was legally recognized by the United Nations after the Second World War through the UN Charter and its importance was understood.
- NGOs are run mainly in three ways in India, in which it is created through Trust, Society and Non-Profit Organization.
- In the developing countries and in the poor countries of the world through the United Nations, the government was not able to run all the systems efficiently, so such institutions were promoted.
- The main objective of NGO is to work on the major problems of the society and to help the government on those subjects which the government cannot reach.
- At least two people can use their property for the society through trust and can register the institution under this law.
- This NGO is established by at least seven persons under the Societies Act, whose purpose is given in writing to the corresponding officer.
- Under Section 8 of the Companies Act, a non-profit company is established, whose main objective is to work on social problems.
- NGO has to submit its audit report to the corresponding authority, failing which the recognition of the organization is cancelled.
- To control foreign aid in 2020, the Government of India brought the FCRA Bill, with the aim of regulating such funds.
In this way we have seen what is the purpose of NGO and how such organizations are regulated in India. We do not get to see what is an NGO at the ground level and what is its use for us, but one organization for every 400 people, in this way these organizations are in India. Very good work is done by some organizations but such organizations are very few. Most of the NGOs are established with the aim of earning money.
Those who do not know the society of India at all or who have not read anything about the society, we mostly see such people running NGOs. Big companies build these institutions to save their profits from tax, they don’t want to fulfill any of their social responsibility. According to the information of the government, many NGOs in India are run through foreign funds to keep control over the government or to form the desired government.
The issue of transparency of NGO is very important, which political parties deliberately do not want to bring out, because of this, this law has failed till date to convey complete information to the people. In a vast country like India, NGO can work very effectively if it is run honestly. That’s why so many NGOs are run in India but its effect is not visible at all on the development of the society. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the government to implement it through an effective means, which will also help in reducing their burden and we will be able to become self-reliant.