World War I ended the four major monarchies, ending the Prussian and Ottoman Empires that had ruled for many centuries. This was the period of Russia’s social and political revolution. Europe has been the main focus of both world wars. Which means that political consciousness is seen first in most European society. The United Nations carried out this campaign through a Trusteeship undertaking till 1994 and most of the ruled the countries of the world were granted independence and this institution was later abolished.
The Second World War had greatly weakened the economic condition of the developed countries of the world, in order to improve it and for such a world war not to happen again in the world, the “United Nations Organization” was established under the leadership of America. About which we will see what results it gave to the world till today and who analyze more benefit of this organization.
By establishing the Security Council in the United Nations, America, France, England, Russia and China were made permanent members in it. Who have been given the power of veto. In the United Nations, almost all countries are members on this day and instead of Jerusalem and Palestine, these two members are kept under the supervision of the United Nations.
What is United Nations Organization? –
The United Nations is a nation in itself, under which all the countries of the world are members. But it has its own system like countries to run its law and order, But with the help of all the country’s machinery, this system has been established and the United Nations All nations work according to the constitution of the Union. In which human rights are a very important component. The system of the United Nations Organization is made by the means of all countries, in which regulation is done from law and order to peace and brotherhood in the world.
The United Nations works on problems like education, health, poverty, inequality and many such works are done by different organizations to guide and give policy to improve the economy of poor and developing countries. There should be a union in the economy of all the countries of the world and the work of establishing a balance is done by the United Nations. So that no weak country should have its ill effects.
It was founded after the end of World War II due to the failure of the “League of Nations”. Whose original purpose and concept was put in front of the world by the President of America at that time. For which there were only 51 countries in the beginning, but today almost all the countries of the world are members of this organization.
Why was the United Nations established ?-
After the First World War, the “League of Nations” was established under the leadership of England. But it failed to stop the Second World War and then the US President put the idea of the United Nations in front of the world. For which fifty countries showed their consent. And with the consent of the five main members of the Security Council, the United Nations was established on 24 October 1945.
This war was fought between two major factions, in which one site was Germany, Italy and Japan, which was called Axis Power, and in the other site there were countries like America, England, France, Russia, which were called the Allies. Whose result would go in whose favor it was not important, but due to this the result which was seen by the whole world and especially the developed countries of Europe was quite frightening.
To maintain peace in the world, to make a policy to keep humanity safe and to maintain law and order. This means that the member country that tries to create unrest, the United Nations was established with many such purposes. In this, the Security Council has been given the power to take important decisions. In which five countries have permanent membership, which we have seen above.
Structure of United Nations –
An international organization was established through the United Nations on 26 June 1945 in San Francisco through the UN Charter. The main six organizations of the United Nations have been created, under which many sub-organizations are run. These six main organizations work for the basic purpose of the United Nations.
1) General Assembly –
This assembly is made up of all the members of the United Nations. In this assembly, according to the UN Charter, all the topics that are brought up for discussion are discussed and a collective decision is taken on it, which is placed before the Security Council. Important decisions are taken about how to implement all the components of the United Nations.
2) Security Council –
The Security Council, which we call the Security Council, consists of 15 member countries who do important work for the peace and security of the world. The United States, England, France, Russia and China are the five permanent members in the Security Council, and the rest of the members serve temporarily for two years. The job of the Security Council is to take important decisions like the representative of all the members of the United Nations.
3) Economic and Social Council –
This organization of the United Nations works on economic and social matters, for which 54 members are elected through the General Assembly, which changes after every three years.
4) Trustee Sheep Council –
Many member countries of the world were not independent, they were ruled under some country, which was gradually independent till 1994. After that this organization was declared finished. In which the permanent members of the Security Council have been very important.
5) International Court of Justice –
It was established as an international court, whose main purpose is to solve the problems arising within the countries in a legal way. In the International Court of Justice, 15 members are elected for 9 years through the General Assembly, which are also re-appointed, but for this the recognition of the General Assembly has to be taken. While appointing the members of the ICJ, care is taken that there should not be more than one representative of any country.
6) Secretariat –
It is an administrative component that is created to work for the administration of the United Nations, under which many of the union organizations are planned. The head of this institution is appointed by the General Assembly, but who will be appointed for this, its rights are decided by the members of the Permanent Security Council. The Secretary General is the head of this institution, whose term is for five years, who is appointed after every five years.
Thousands of organizations work through these 6 main organizations of the United Nations, whose planning and decision-making process is done through the General Assembly and the Security Council, in which America plays a very important role.
What is the purpose of the United Nations –
The League of Nations was established as a result of the First World War, whose task was to keep the peace, but still it failed and World War II had to be seen by the world. The League of Nations was dismissed after the end of World War II, and the United Nations was established by the idea of US President Roosevelt.
This war put very dire consequences in front of the world, in which the basic objective of coordinating economic recession and international trade was kept while establishing this institution. The Axis Powers of the World War were disintegrated after the World War and Germany was divided into two separate parts, which happened again after the 1990s.
Security Council It was made the main body of the United Nations, whose main function was to fulfill the purpose of this organization as a representative of the General Assembly. The objective of providing peace and security in the world was set by the main five permanent members in the Security Council through veto power.
For the countries which could not be run on their own, they were made independent and self-sufficient through the Trustee Ship Council. Many such works are done by the United Nations Organization. In which arrangements were made for education, health, economic planning and many such things.
United Nations & India –
India has been a founding member of the United Nations, which has been a member since the time of British India. But India has not been given any place in the permanent member of the Security Council of this organization. Under the US strategy, India wants to take India to the Security Council to counter its competitor China, but China is opposing it.
The member countries which provide financial assistance to run the United Nations, in which India’s share is only 1%, due to which India has failed to keep its influence in this institution. General Secretary of the Secretariat Not a single person of India has been appointed to this important post till date, which is a very important post.
We have had the opportunity to appoint representatives to the International Court of Justice many times. But the main goal of India is to become a permanent member of the Security Council. India has had two main international problems from the beginning One is the issue of Kashmir and the other is terrorism on the border, for which America has supported India a lot as a strategy after 1990.
United Nations and Security Council –
The Security Council is a very important body in the United Nations, consisting of 15 members and mainly five permanent members, who have been given unlimited power. Through the G-4 Council, it has been proposed to increase the number of permanent members, which should mainly consist of Japan, India, Brazil and Germany and African representative countries.
So far, the main members of the Security Committee, America, France, England, Russia and China, do not want to increase this member number to maintain their power and influence on the world. But the condition that was there in 1945 is not the condition today, it has changed a lot, so the demand to change the Security Council has been raised many times.
Why is the Security Council so important? If we see the answer to this question, then there are 194 member countries in the United Nations. Which is controlled by the five-member Security Council with its veto power. Therefore, many proposals have been brought to change these rules of the UN Charter But there is a lot of difficulty in implementing it. The Security Council has the right to decide on the resolution brought in the General Assembly, due to which their power is considered very important.
Functions of United Nation –
The main task of the United Nations has been to maintain peace in the world and protect the weak countries from the strong countries. Through Chapter 6 of the UN Charter, under the authority of the Security Council and through the decision process, the process of Pacific Disputes Resolution will be implemented. In which the problems between two or more countries will be resolved through the International Court of Justice and agreement-treaties.
The Security Council has the right of inquiry to determine the truth in such disputes, so that the process of justice is completed. The Security Council has the right to decide how to deal with these matters and through which process these matters can be resolved. If a country violates the United Nations, what action to take on it, it is decided through the Security Council.
In the working of the United Nations, a lot of power has been given to the permanent members of the Security Council. Through which the power to decide on the resolutions given by the General Assembly has been given to these five countries through a veto. After the establishment of the United Nations, it became very difficult to openly attack a country and this resulted in the creation of international terrorism, as a result of which many countries are suffering, which the United Nations has failed to solve.
What is the difference between NATO and United Nations?
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and the United Nations (UN) are two distinct organizations with different purposes, structures, and memberships.
NATO is a military alliance that was formed in 1949 by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to provide collective defense against the Soviet Union and its allies during the Cold War. Today, NATO has 30 member countries, and its primary objective is to protect the freedom and security of its members through political and military means. NATO’s activities include military operations, training exercises, and policy coordination.
On the other hand, the United Nations is an international organization established in 1945 to promote peace, security, and cooperation among nations. The UN has 193 member countries and serves as a platform for countries to discuss and resolve global issues such as climate change, poverty, and human rights violations. The UN has several bodies, including the General Assembly, Security Council, International Court of Justice, and several specialized agencies that work towards its objectives.
In summary, while NATO is a military alliance focused on collective defense, the United Nations is a global organization dedicated to promoting peace, cooperation, and resolving global issues through diplomacy and other peaceful means.
Features of United Nation Organization –
- After world war – II the International Peace and security is maintained through the UNO so the object of the formation of organization fulfilled till the day.
- Trough organizations like the World Bank and World Trade Organization UNO tried to developed the economy and trade of all the member countries.
- Protection of worldwide human rights through UNO machinery and if there is any violation, then punish that country with economical sanctions and other enforceable activities.
- The United Nation Organization was established by the initiative of the United States of America after world war-II.
- Security Council is the major wing of the United Nation organization where five permanent members have the veto power of overrule the any important decisions.
- In spite of formation of United Nation Organization America and Russia fought the proxy war(Cold War) for 45 years after world war till the 1990 unification of East Germany and West Germany.
- Terrorism and Nuclear weapon are the major problem arises after the formation of the United Nation of Organization.
- Globalization is the output after the formation of UNO, which gives the world technology and trade all over the world through International Laws.
Critical Analysis of United Nations –
- On the one hand, Russia and America have been responsible, permanent members of the Security Council, but on the other hand, through the Cold War, for 45 years, capitalism and socialism have been fighting each other on the democratic model of their ideology.
- The purpose of the United Nations is to maintain peace and security in the world, but many countries have built nuclear power which is very unsafe in the world.
- Only five countries have maintained their monopoly on this international organization through the Security Council.
- Economic and political policies have benefited more to developed countries than poor countries, the economic data shows reality.
- Open market and free economy This policy is applicable only to developing countries, but indirectly developed countries have been increasing their trade with political and economic power.
- The purpose of maintaining peace in the world is good, but it has generated a new seed like terrorism. Which has killed many innocent people, this has been the biggest failure of this institution.
- The powerful countries of the United Nations have been seen using their power many times for their political ambitions.
- The United Nations has no such system of its own as any country has, so many decisions of the ICJ remain only on paper, there is no powerful system to execute the judgements of the ICJ.
- Many times economic and political restrictions have been seen being misused.
- The Middle East countries have been used only for economic gains, humanity seems to have been this second priority.
In this way, we have tried to know about the United Nations Organization, in which we have tried to know how there are economic, political and social consequences. We have tried to know what is the importance of India in the United Nations and what we should do in future.
Till 1990, India had always been a strategic friend of Russia, but we changed ourselves from socialist policy to capitalist policy. Which changed the equations in the United Nations. The America which earlier opposed us turned pro and Russia preferred to keep itself quiet but after 1990 China emerged as an economic superpower which has become America’s competitor.
America is using India to counter China, which Pakistan used to do before 1990. Today the situation is opposite, China supports Pakistan and America supports India, whose advantages and disadvantages we have to see in future. Earlier, Russia used to take the initiative to bring us in the Security Council, but today in view of the growing relationship between America and India, it has changed its stand. The Russia-Ukrain was again changed the scenario of the India-Russia relation.